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Insulating or Transformer Oil Market 2018 Forecasts and Analysis

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USA, Texas: ReportsnReports.com has published ‘Insulating or Transformer Oil Market 2018 Forecasts and Analysis’ research.

Analysts forecast the global transformer oil market to grow at a CAGR of 9.10 % over the period 2013-2018.

The Report divides the global transformer oil market into three divisions: mineral-based transformer oil, bio-based transformer oil, and silicone-based transformer oil. These are type of products used to meet the demands of various end-user segments.

‘Global Transformer Oil Market 2014-2018’ has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the North America, the Europe and APAC regions; it also covers the Global Transformer Oil market landscape and its growth prospects in the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market.

According to the Report, the market driver is increase in demand from developing countries, and the main challenge is adoption of dry distribution transformers.

The Report covers the following regions: North Americas, Europe and APACK. Key vendors mentioned are Ergon Inc., Nynas AB and PetroChina Co. Ltd..Other prominent vendors mentioned in the report are Apar Industries Ltd.,  Calumet Specialty Products Partners L.P., Cargill Inc., Dow Corning Corp. and San Joaquin Refining Co. Inc..

Source: PRWeb

Transformer oil acts as a dielectric medium in oil-filled transformers to cool and insulate the transformer windings and core. Transformer windings and core, which are highly stable at high temperatures, are fully immersed in these oils as they prevent the contact of atmospheric oxygen with the cellulose paper insulation of windings, which are highly prone to oxidization. There are mainly three types of transformer oils: mineral-based, silicone-based, and bio-based. Of these, mineral-based transformer oil is largely preferred mainly because of its good electrical and cooling properties and cost-effectiveness.

TechNavio’s analysts forecast the Global Transformer Oil market to grow at a CAGR of 9.10 percent over the period 2013-2018.

Covered in this Report

The Global Transformer Oil market can be segmented into three divisions: mineral-based transformer oil, bio-based transformer oil, and silicone-based transformer oil. These are type of products used to meet the demands of various end-user segments.

TechNavio’s report, the Global Transformer Oil Market 2014-2018, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the North America, the Europe and APAC regions; it also covers the Global Transformer Oil market landscape and its growth prospects in the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market.

Key Regions

  • North Americas
  • Europe
  • APAC

Key Vendors

  • Ergon Inc.
  • Nynas AB
  • PetroChina Co. Ltd.

Other Prominent Vendors

  • Apar Industries Ltd.
  • Calumet Specialty Products Partners L.P.
  • Cargill Inc.
  • Dow Corning Corp.
  • San Joaquin Refining Co. Inc.

Market Driver

  • Increase in Demand from Developing Countries
  • For a full, detailed list, view our report.

Market Challenge

  • Adoption of Dry Distribution Transformers
  • For a full, detailed list, view our report.

Market Trend

  • Recovery of European Automotive Industry
  • For a full, detailed list, view our report.

Key Questions Answered in this Report

  • What will the market size be in 2018 and what will the growth rate be?
  • What are the key market trends?
  • What is driving this market?
  • What are the challenges to market growth?
  • Who are the key vendors in this market space?
  • What are the market opportunities and threats faced by the key vendors?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the key vendors?

GlobeCore manufactures equipment for transformers field servicing and oil regeneration, purification, filtration.

 

 

Global Transformer Oil Market 2014-2018

Table of Contents

01. Executive Summary

02. List of Abbreviations

03. Scope of the Report
03.1 Market Overview
03.2 Product Offerings

04. Market Research Methodology
04.1 Market Research Process
04.2 Research Methodology

05. Introduction

06. Market Landscape
06.1 Market Overview
06.2 Market Size and Forecast
06.3 Five Forces Analysis

07. Market Segmentation by Product
07.1 Global Mineral-based Transformer Oil Market
Market Size and Forecast
07.2 Global Bio-based Transformer Oil Market
Market Size and Forecast
07.3 Global Silicone-based Transformer Oil Market
Market Size and Forecast

08. Geographical Segmentation
08.1 Transformer Oil Market in the APAC Region
Market Size and Forecast
08.2 Transformer Oil Market in North America
Market Size and Forecast
08.3 Transformer Oil Market in Europe
Market Size and Forecast

09. Buying Criteria

10. Market Growth Drivers

11. Drivers and their Impact

12. Market Challenges

13. Impact of Drivers and Challenges

14. Market Trends

15. Trends and their Impact

16. Vendor Landscape
16.1 Competitive Scenario
16.2 Other Prominent Vendors

17. Key Vendor Analysis
17.1 Ergon Inc.
Business Overview
Business Segments
Key Information
SWOT Analysis
17.2 Nynas AB
Business Overview
Business Segments
Key Information
SWOT Analysis
17.3 PetroChina Co. Ltd.
Business Overview
Business Segments
Key Information
SWOT Analysis

18. Other Reports in this Series

List of Exhibits:

Exhibit 1: Market Research Methodology
Exhibit 2: Transformer Oil Market Structure
Exhibit 3: Global Transformer Oil Market 2013-2018 (US$ million)
Exhibit 4: Global Transformer Oil Market by Product Segmentation 2013
Exhibit 5: Global Transformer Oil Market by Product Segmentation 2013-2018
Exhibit 6: Global Mineral-based Transformer Oil Market 2013-2018 (US$ million)
Exhibit 7: Global Bio-based Transformer Oil Market 2013-2018 (US$ million)
Exhibit 8: Global Silicone-based Transformer Oil Market 2013-2018 (US$ million)
Exhibit 9: Global Transformer Oil Market by Geographical Segmentation 2013
Exhibit 10: Global Transformer Oil Market by Geographical Segmentation 2013-2018
Exhibit 11: Transformer Oil Market in the APAC Region 2013-2018 (US$ million)
Exhibit 12: Transformer Oil Market in North America 2013-2018 (US$ million)
Exhibit 13: Transformer Oil Market in Europe 2013-2018 (US$ million)

you can buy it at http://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/280415-global-transformer-oil-market-2014-2018.html

 

How to buy reliability of the power equipment with the transformer oil?

Transformer oils have certain technical and chemical parameters. These parameters define the scope of oil application and use.

Dissipation factor is one of the most important indications of oil quality and is a measure of the oil’s dielectric strength. Aging causes oil to lose its functionality and poses a threat to operation of oil filled equipment. Dielectric strength testing is a safety concern and must never be neglected.

The actual dielectric strength of the oil is mostly defined by the presence of solid particles and moisture. It is therefore important to remove solid particles and water from insulation oil.

Another indication is the oil’s viscosity, which shows how efficient the oil is in terms of cooling. Oil viscosity should top out at temperatures of at least 95, 125 95, 125, 135 and 150°С for various oil types.

Setting and flashpoint temperatures indicate the allowable range of oil operation. Low setting temperatures are essential to use the oil in cold climate. High flashpoint is important for fire safety concerns.

Another important quality of the oil is its oxidation stability, i.e. the ability to maintain its properties in prolonged use. Oxidation stability is influenced by many factors, both internal (antioxidant additive, reaction with metals, formation of gas in the oil) and external (moisture, air and temperature). This parameter is important for service life of both the oil and oil filled equipment in general.

Many oils, e.g. GK and TKp contain antioxidant additive which can extend the service life of oil to 20-25 years.

Purchasing transformer oil from manufacturers and traders is not a problem these days. Each company is competing and attempting to sell at the lowest price and offer the best service.

Transformer oil is an indispensible part of insulation of electric equipment. High purity and low viscosity of the oil allow it to be used in power transformers.

Depending on the actual equipment, transformer oils function as dielectric liquid or, for instance, as arc-extinguishing media in switches.

Quality oil has high dielectric strength, low setting point, high oxidation stability, availability of convenient and practical transportation vessels. High quality oil significantly extends reliable operation of oil filled electric equipment.

Which kind of transformer oil to buy?

A great number of manufacturers and distributor of transformer oil operate in the international and national markets.

Transformer oils, a liquid for cooling and insulating power transformers and other high voltage gear, remain an indispensible part of power transmission and generation industry.

In scientific terms, transformer oil is a product of crude oil refining. The properties of transformer oil depend heavily on the quality and parameters of the raw material. Performance of the oil is defined by the positive and negative properties of the crude oil. Chemical composition of the oil is quite complex. It includes the following components: paraffin (10-15%), naphtenes or cycloparaffins (60-70%), aromatic hydrocarbons (15-20%), asphalt (1-2%), sulfuric compounds (<1%), nitric compounds (<0.8%), naphtenic acids (<0.02%) and antioxidation additive (0.5 – 0.5%).

Transformer oils must be highly resistant to oxidation, must not form sludge and emulsify in contact with water. Antioxidation additives are an important component present in virtually all types of transformer oil.

The efficiency of such additive is based on the ability to react with active peroxide radicals, which form in the result of hydrocarbon oxidation reaction and are its primary carriers.

Presence of additives in transformer oil slows aging of the oil. As soon as the additive is depleted, the oil ages in about the same amount of time as an oil without the additive.

The main properties of transformer oil are its viscosity and density. These have a pronounced effect on function of the oil. Higher viscosity may mean better dielectric strength, while also having a detrimental effect on cooling. Optimal kinetic viscosity of the oil at 20C is about 28-30×10-6 m2/second.

Dissipation factor, in turn, is responsible for the oil’s dielectric properties and protects the system from possible short circuits.

These and other properties of transformer oil are improved by the use of high quality crude oil, deep refining and introduction of additives which increase the oil’s oxidation stability and reduce corrosion.

When the oil is significantly oxidized under the influence of water, solids, air and other gases, high temperature etc, the oil should be replaced. If degradation of oil properties is not detected in time, transformers may fail. When the oil decays, it can no longer serve as a dielectric and starts to react with the metal of the transformer tank, hinders cooling and may lead to short circuits.

The following are some of the oils which may be purchase in the local market.

VG type oil is made from paraffinic crude oil by catalytic process with the adition of an antioxidation  additive. It is a good dielectric and is rather stable against oxidation. It is mostly used in higher voltage equipment.

GK type oil is made of sulfuric paraffinic oils by hydrocracking. It also contains ionol antioxidant, which ensures good stability and dielectric properties of the oil. It is another kind of oil used in higher voltage systems.

TKp oil is made from low-sulfur naphtenic crude by acid-alkali purification. The oil also contains the antioxidant. This oil is recommended for equipment with voltage up to 500 kV.

Oil selection depends not only on the type of electric equipment, but also and mostly on the individual requirements of the facility. Most of transformer oils are universal. In all cases, the correct selection of oil type with consideration of local climatic and physical operating conditions ensures reliable and stable operation of power equipment: high voltage transformers and switch gear.

Quality Assurance: Methods of transformer oil testing

Quality of transformer oil is tested in several stages of its use. Regular control of the oil’s quality is a part of the process of servicing electric equipment. The main parameters of oil and its purity indicate transformer condition.

The ability of the oil to maintain its original properties during operation of electric equipment is referred to as oil stability. If the equipment has not defects and operates without failures, the parameters of new oil change very slowly. New transformer oil has light color and complies with regulations, which define the oil’s dielectric strength and other properties. In use, stability of the oil decreases and notable changes occur, the color changes to dark.

Poor oil quality is indicated by high ash content, increased acidity and presence of low molecular acids. Acidic sludge forms in contaminated oil, which disrupts cellulose insulation and reacts with the metals of the transformer’s internal components.

Oil tests can identify the beginning of oil degradation.

The main physical and chemical properties tested are the oil’s dielectric strength, dissipation factor, flashpoint, color, solid, water and gas content as well as acid number.

Dielectric strength is one of the most important indications of oil stability and this is often the first test performed. It is calculated as an average of five breakthrough achieved in a standard discharger with two electrodes at 2.5 mm distance. Six breakthroughs are achieved in the test and the last five are averaged. If the oil is fresh, the lowest allowable breakthrough voltage is 30 kV. In some transformers, that is as good as needed.

Decreasing dielectric strength indicates contamination of the oil by gas, moisture, cellulose fibers or other particulate matter.

A similar process is used to calculate dissipation factor. The oil’s ability to neutralize energy, prevent breakthroughs and cool the transformer is characterized by the oil’s quality and purity, or acidity. In general, increased dissipation factor means degradation of the oil’s dielectric capabilities.

The color of transformer oil changes from light yellow to cloudy brown under the influence of temperature, contaminants and current. The color is not in itself an indication of any specific problem, but dark color is usually an indication of aged oil.

The presence of solid particles and the acid number of the oil are related. Unsolved materials accumulated in the oil in the form of sludge or suspended particles (fibers, dust, solved paint, metal particles, ash etc) degrade the oil’s dielectric properties and promote oil oxidation. The more particles are present in the oil, the faster the oil ages. The acid number is expressed as milligrams of KOH required to neutralize all acids in a gram of oil and indicates the degree of oil aging. Normal acid number is 0.25 mg KOH/g, while the limit of contaminant content is 515 ppm.

Moisture and gas content in transformer oil is tested thoroughly, because water and air are some of the main “catalysts” of oil aging process.

Moisture content is measured as amount of hydrogen when reacting the oil with calcium hydride in a certain time. Gas content is measured by an absorptiometric analyzer or a chromatographer.

Flashpoint and setting point are indications of general fire safety of the oil and its ability to operate in adverse temperature conditions.

Therefore, the advantages of testing and analyzing transformer oil before starting electric equipment and during regular maintenance, allow to determine the equipment’s efficiency, operation conditions and possibility of malfunctions. If the purity and quality regulations are followed, the facility is safe from failure and downtime of equipment and related repair costs.

Classification of tests on new transformer oil

The conditions in which transformer oil is used in transformer, switches and other high voltage equipment are rather demanding on the quality and purity of the oil. In the process oil is heated by currents, contaminated by particles of solid insulation and chemical reactions with the internal surfaces of the equipment, solves water and gas from the outside. Each of these separately and all together significantly accelerate aging of transformer oil and can make it harmful for the equipment.

A sample of transformer oil is taken from the lower part of transformer oil tank after rinsing of the drain opening by oil. The sampling vessel must be clean and very dry.

Local and international standards define certain parameters which the oil should comply with.

Oil analysis and testing is performed directly before filling of oil into power equipment.

New transformer oil is tested before filling into transformers. Purity and quality guaranteed by the manufacturer of oil does not prevent water, air and solid particles form entering the oil during handing and storage. Even new transformer oil must be tested and purified to extend its service life and ensure reliable equipment operation.

Before a transformer is energized, the oil in the transformer must be briefly tested for minimum dielectric strength, solids, acidity and flashpoint.

If different brands of oil are used in the transformer, the blend must be tested for stability, which should not be inferior to stability of one of the oils with the lowest stability value.

Used oil must be tested according to regulations on operation of industrial equipment.

Before testing the vessel containing the oil is inverted and turned slowly around several times to eliminate air bubbles from the oil. A ceramic oil test vessel with electrodes is filled three times. Oil is poured on the walls of the vessel in a thin stream so as to prevent formation of air bubbles. The level of oil in the vessel must be at least 15 mm higher than the top of the electrode. After each rinsing, the oil is completely drained.

Transformer oil is allowed to settle in the vessel for 15-20 minutes for air bubble removal. Then voltage is gradually increase at the rate of 1 – 2 kV per second. After a breakthrough is achieved (spark between the electrodes), voltage is dropped to zero. Six runs are done, and the average of the five subsequent tests is taken, the first breakthrough is not considered.

After each breakthrough carbon particles are removed from the space between the electrodes by clean glass or metal rods. The liquid then settles for 10 minutes.

Transformer oil sampling process may vary from facility to facility, depending on the equipment used and purity requirements.

At any rate, a timely analysis may well prevent significant costs and losses.

Classification of transformer oil storage tanks

In power transformers and in electric equipment in general, oil is used for insulation of equipment and for cooling. Using certain types of oil for power systems is regulated by international and national legislation and standards. The purpose if to keep equipment and systems in good condition, which depends on some parameters and general condition of transformer oil.

Any business with uses oil is concerned with the issue of oil storage. This is especially important for the energy sector.

Transformer oil may come form the factory or substation in different condition: fresh from the manufacturer in possible increased water and gas content accumulated during transportation; oil purified after shipment and ready for operation; clean oil, filled into the equipment, compliant with specifications; used oil, removed from equipment after loss of functional properties; regeneratedused oil after physical, chemical or combined treatment with restoration of original specifications and ready for further use.

Transformer oil delivered from the manufacturer and purified as necessary to comply with the regulations, is stored in liquid storage tanks at oil facilities.

For the purposes of fire safety, the manufacturer must strictly adhere to the requirements of national standards. However, the actual method of storage, availability of specially equipped buildings, tanks and service equipment is variable.

A wide range of oil storage tanks is out in the market. There are soft tanks, which allow to drain and store oil quickly servicing and transformer downtime, but are more suited for reduction of automobile transportation of oil to interim storage facilities.

For actual storage of liquids, the most widely used are vertical cylindrical tanks, equipped with level and quality controls, agitation systems and temperature sensors and maintenance systems.

A vertical insulated tank is made of construction steel with heat carrier circulation pipes below the surface. For servicing, a ladder is mounted on the tank with protective rail along the top. Temperature is monitored by a thermistor installed in the bottom of the tank, which shows the temperature on the control panel. The heat exchange system is an array of pipes and insulation jackets.

Correct oil storage systems allow to keep the oil in good condition and preserve its specification, lowering the cost of additional purification and regeneration due to premature aging of the oil.

Methods of transformer oil purification

Transformer oil insulates energized parts and components of power transformers, acts as a coolant and protects solid insulation from moisture. Beside transformers, oil is used in switches, high voltage capacitors and power cables. In switches oil acts as an arc extinguisher.

In the process of transformer operation, the oil accumulates various contaminants, which adversely affect the oil’s functions. To restore them, the oil must be purified from foreign substances (water, gases and solid particles). Let’s look into the methods of transformer oil purification methods depending on the substance to be removed from the oil.

Centrifugal purification is a method for water removal. It comes down to separation of materials under centrifugal force. The main advantage of this method is the relatively high rate of water removal. However, there are several drawbacks: low degree of purification, complexity and the necessity for constant presence of controlling personnel.

Anothe method for water removal is adsorption purification. The biggest advantage of this method is its simplicity. The drawbacks are the dependency of purification rate on the sorbent used, the need to dispose of sorbent with potential environmental risks, high quality requirement to input oil and low processing capacity.

The difference of water and oil boiling temperatures is the essence of thermovacuum drying. The oil to be purified goes into a special chamber with low pressure. In such conditions water evaporates at room temperatures. The method allows for high efficiency of purification, it is rather reliable and requires no complex adjustments. The main drawback is the relatively low rate of water removal.

The above methods may also be used for removal of gases, solids and acids from transformer oil. E.g. thermovacuum purification is also good at degassing. Centrifugal purification can also remove solid particles. Single and multiple use filters with high degree of purification are also used for the same purpose. Such filters must be replaced from time to time. Acidity of the oil is decreased by adsorption.

Transformer oil degassing as a part of comprehensive purification system

Transformer oil degassing as a part of comprehensive purification system

While operating expensive power equipment, such as compressors, turbines, hydraulic presses, heat exchangers and power transformers, unforeseen malfunctions will happen. In rare cases failures are caused by overvoltage of the grid or human mistake, since operation of power equipment is a safety issue. Equipment downtime, failures and malfunctions are most often caused by the problems of internal components or insulation. Oil of various kinds are used for servicing of different industrial machinery. As a result of contamination by solid particles or moisture and air, as well as high temperatures, equipment may fail which may stop the whole manufacturing process.

Comprehensive oil purification systems are becoming more used recently; if before industrial oil service life could be extended by separate degassing, drying and filtration systems, with totally spent oil being disposed of, now operation of comprehensive oil purification and regeneration systems becomes preferable.

Removing gas, water emulsions, and harmful oxidation products form the oil extends the service life of the expensive insulation material and ensures the power equipment is adequately protected.

Comparison of purification and regeneration plants made by different companies yields significant differences.

Most of the modern manufacturers emphasize removal of water in all forms and solid particles from turbine, compressor, hydraulic and industrial water. Removal of air, gas and volatile hydrocarbons is a secondary function.

Despite the normal production levels of such systems and their seeming versatility, there are other options with more worth.

The whole range of GlobeCore degassing, purification and regeneration of oil by GlobeCore is focused on all processes at the same time, in one pass and with reactivation of purifying media.

One full regeneration cycle of oil coming directly from power equipment allows to remove gas, water and particulate matter form the oil; it is also possible to use adsorption media to regenerate the oil entirely. GlobeCore’s sorbents offer additional savings due to the reactivation capability.

A complete GlobeCore plant for degassing, filtration and regeneration of oil and other liquids is an optimal choice of service equipment for control of production process and ruling out any unpleasant surprises.

What is better “drought” or “rainy season” – the percentage of moisture in dry transformer oil

Transformer oil aging results in degradation of its properties. The aging process is accelerated by influence of water, air or contaminants. Moisture and air cause the oil to oxidize, which lowers it’s dielectric strength, causes sludge deposits on transformer internal insulation and damages the insulation by the acidic products of oil decay.

Water may be present in transformer oil in various states: solved, emulsified or free. Even new oil contains solved water. Free water mostly accumulates in the lower parts of oil lines and in heat exchange devices. Water is solved in oil under the influence of high temperature. During operation water content in the oil increases, and may be extremely harmful for a transformer.

GlobeCore’s equipment allows removal of contaminants, including water, directly on energized transformers in compliance with the highest international standards.

Complete transformer oil filtration and regeneration systems are designed for full range of services to purify waste oil. The units are equipped with adsorbents for restoration of oil performance and improving its color.

According to international research, various sorbents may be used for drying of oil, as well as for retention of oil aging products. Some of the sorbent may be reactivated, which makes GlobeCore plants not only highly advanced by also very sensible in terms of return on investment.

The UVM type mobile oil plants are designed for the following operations:

  • Dehydration of oil for moisture content of no more than 10 ppm.
  • Degassing of oil to no more than 0.1% of gas content by volume.
  • Increase of dielectric strength to at least 70kV.
  • Drying of electric equipment with simultaneous oil purification.
  • Initial filling of dielectric oil into electric systems;
  • Nitrogenation of oil;
  • Vacuum evacuation of transformer and other electric systems.

GlobeCore’s plants significantly increase oil processing stability and consistency and improve oil performance.

Tests and trials: sports, art or industry? Analyse of transformer oil purification.

Correct use of oil guarantees reliability of industrial equipment and prevention of failures. Transformer oil is a dielectric and a coolant. It also serves as arc extinguisher.

Transformer oil parameters degrade over time as the oil ages. Oil oxidation is mostly caused by external elements, such as water, air and heat. Aging of oil is indicated by its acidity, water reaction, sediment and sludge formation.

Sludge is accumulated on solid insulation and core of transformers, in cooling channels etc. Sludge degrades cooling and damages solid insulation, which begins to disintegrate. A short-circuit in transformer windings becomes a possibility.

Acidity of oil is the main indication of aging. Acidity is measured by special litmus paper, which changes color when subjected to contaminants. Acids can damage cellulose insulation and metal parts of the transformer.

Acid number, the main indication of transformer oil quality, is the amount of grams of KOH required to neutralize all free acids in one gram of oil. Acid number indicates how much the oil has aged and whether it should be replaced. After a certain degree of aging, transformer oil begins to destroy solid insulation of the transformer.

Beside chemical parameters, transformer oil must comply with certain physical and electric parameters. Degradation of these may indicate problems inside power equipment.

For instance, oil flashpoint must be exceedingly high to ensure fire safety in overload conditions and temperature increase inside the transformer.

Dielectric strength of transformer oil is important for prevention of breakthroughs in the transformer. This parameters is measured regularly in high voltage breakthrough indicators. Transformer oil is tested by six trials with 10 minute intervals. The average of six trials is considered. If the results are unsatisfactory, another sample is tested and a decision on the course of action is made.

Fresh or used transformer oil must be tested before filling into the transformer. Some parameters tested are particulate matter content, general oxidation stability, transparency, dissipation factor, flash and setting points, viscosity, acidity and water content. If the oil is in the transformer, sludge is also examined.

These measures are designed to identify and resolve a problem before the problem can shut down a transformer.

Transformer oil is purified from contaminants, acids and gas in transformer oil purification and regeneration plants. Complete preventive maintenance systems reduce costs and downtime, while increasing profits.